Preparing for Startup Weekend? Here are a couple of workshops to help you out

We’re in the final week of preparation for the inaugural Startup Weekend – Kuwait, and have teamed up with developers and entrepreneurs to bring you two workshops (or bootcamps) to help familiarize you with the event and the tools you will need to build your prototype. Attending these events is NOT mandatory. We’re organizing them to give you a better idea of what to expect during the event.

The first event is on Monday, January 28th. We are teaming up with StartupQ8 OpenCoffee Club to hold an introductory session about Startup Weekend. Topics will include:
  • Pitching your idea: What to include in the 60 second pitch? What is the pitching format?
  • Teamwork: How are teams formed? What happens if the idea is/isn’t picked?
  • Business Model Development: How should the business model be built? Any important criteria for winning pitches?
  • Mentors and coaches: Who will coach at Startup Weekend? What kind of help can be expected?
  • Demo day: What should be in the demo? How to prepare the presentation?
  • Q&A.
We encourage everyone who’s planning to attend Startup Weekend to come. The event will be at 7:30 pm Monday January 28th at Java Detour – Soor Tower, Soor Street, Kuwait City.
The second event is on Wednesday, January 30th. We are teaming up with GDG Kuwait to introduce different development tools you can use during Startup Weekend. Topics will include:

An overview about the various tools that google provide to startups that enable them to:

  • Build their product or app (like App Engine, Android).
  • Measure their users engagement with the product and improve conversions.
  • Enhance their products to be more engaging and convenient for your users.
  • Promote and increase the discovery of their products.
  • Receive payments in their products or apps whether through direct payments or advertising or both.

The we will have a code lab, where we will help you:

  • Get your machine ready to use these tools to build your app during Startup Weekend (SDKs. IDEs, etc .. )
  • Explain selected APIs and Platforms in details and walk you through getting started with them.
We encourage the developers attending Startup Weekend to come. The event will be at 7:30 pm Wednesday January 30th at Java Detour, Soor Tower, Soor Street, Kuwait City.
If you have any questions please let us know. Hope to see you there!

Startup Weekend is coming to Kuwait!

Want to know what it means to work in a startup and build a cool web or mobile app?

Startup Weekend allows you to do just that. Over 54 hours, you will:

  1. Share you idea.
  2. Build your team.
  3. Launch your startup.

We’re extremely excited to announce Startup Weekend is coming to Kuwait January 31 – February 2! Here’s what you need to know about the event:

Is this event for me?

Startup Weekend attendees’ backgrounds are roughly 50% technical (developers, coders, designers) and 50% business (marketing, business, startup enthusiasts). As long as you’re ready to work in a team, you’re set!

What kind of background do I need?

While it is your objective to build a web/mobile app over the weekend, you do NOT need a technical background to attend. You can form a team with someone who does. Similarly, you do NOT need to have an idea to attend. You can form a team with someone who does.

 How do I register? How much does it cost?

Registration is free, and can be done on  Capacity is limited so we encourage everyone to register if they are attending.

What should I bring?

We encourage you to bring the following:

  • Laptop
  • Power cord
  • Business cards if you have them.
  • Camera – take pictures and video!
  • A second monitor, keyboard, etc…. set yourself up to be productive!
  • Lots of creative energy!

What happens on Thursday, Friday and Saturday?


  • Participants arrive between 5-7 PM, begin networking, and eat dinner.
  • After a short introduction by the Facilitator, there will typically be 1 short speech on practical topics ranging from Pitching Best Practices to Lean Startup Methodology and more.
  • Then the “Pitchfire” will commence: anyone intending to pitch will have 60 seconds to give their best pitch.
  • No presentations or props needed for Thursday. It will just be you and a mic.
  • After pitches are finished, all attendees will vote on their favorites, and using these votes the top ideas will be selected to be worked on over the weekend. Teams will form organically, consolidate, and begin working.


  • Teams will work all day, with the occasional breaks to eat.
  • Mentors will be circulating to provide concrete advice in the field of their expertise for those teams that want it.


  • Teams will work uninterrupted from morning until mid-afternoon.
  • They’ll begin wrapping up their product/prototype and/or presentation around 3-4 PM to do tech-checks and practice their demonstration.
  • After all Judges have arrived presentations will begin: each team typically has 5 minutes plus 2-3 minutes Q&A from the jury (this will vary depending on how many teams are presenting).
  • The jury will select the top teams, give out prizes (we hope!), and the event ends (and celebration begins!).

What types of ideas can I pitch?

Any business ideas are eligible (whether for-profit, ‘social’ businesses, non-profit organizations, etc.), however the event is strongly tech-oriented. Approximately 95% of all ideas are mobile or web focused.

 What about non-technical ideas?

We strongly recommend that non-tech ideas focus on a tech-related deliverable (i.e., website).

 Can I pitch my existing business? Can I work on an idea I’ve worked on before?

No. Startup Weekend is designed to be the most effective platform for growing new businesses from the ground up over the course of a weekend. Working on an existing idea undermined the spirit in which Startup Weekend was intended.

 How do I protect against people stealing my idea?

The short answer is that you can’t. If you’re very concerned, you can limit your pitch to the rough outline of the idea without giving away key information.The longer answer is that this is not something worth worrying about. Unless you are confident your idea is a ‘key-in-hand’, easy-to-implement innovation that hasn’t yet been thought of (which it almost surely isn’t), the advantages gained from getting broad-based feedback and a strong team motivated by collective ownership far outweigh the remote risks of someone stealing and executing on your idea.

What resources/assistance is provided over the weekend?

A key part of every Startup Weekend is the valuable advice and assistance provided by the event’s Speakers and Mentors. Mentors – community experts in various fields ranging from entrepreneurship, software development, marketing, etc. – dedicate their time to providing advice and actually rolling up their sleeves and working with teams. In addition to the most valuable resources at the weekend (the people), we’ve also put together a list of some of the most useful resources in all startup-related fields, for both before, during, and after the weekend. Check out for more info.

Where can I find more information?

Check out Everyone should read the Startup Weekend FAQ page for a more complete set of common Questions and Answers. If you have a question that isn’t answered, please ask one of the organizers or tweet us on @swkuwait.

A Startup is NOT a Small Business

I just came back from the StartupQ8 event and it was great as usual. One of our early readers and early supporters (MyGreenSofa) was asking me about the reason why we are focusing more on Tech startups and neglecting other type of businesses such as restaurants and retailers…etc. It’s a good question, and I tried to answer this issue in a previous post back on July 2012. So allow me to explain this again.

There is a big difference between a Startup (Amazon, Google,….etc) and a Small Business (marketing company, fashion shop, consulting company, Thai food restaurant….etc).

In a Startup you are:

  • Building a new product 
  • Solving a new problem or fulfilling a new need
  • Entering a new market with new customers (doesn’t really know if there is a need or not)
  • Founders have a vision to scale and become a world class company
  • Very risky, yet very rewarding
  • Want to change the world to a better place
  • Attract bright and smart talents (employ more than 1,000 people in the long-term)
  • Revenue more than US$50M

In a Small Business you have:

  • Known product/service
  • Known Customer with known market
  • Low risk
  • Want to keep the business small or within the family
  • Have low potential to grow
  • Founder vision is to  make enough money to feed the family
  •  Attract cheap labor (create 10-100 jobs)

Startup vs Small Business

So here in StartupQ8 we believe that in Kuwait we have enough of small businesses and a lack of startups. I’m not saying that small businesses are bad, but I think they are doing good without us. However, we don’t have many startups (companies that can grow globally, create value to customers around the world, create thousands of jobs  and create millions of dollars to their shareholders). We need to have more of these companies, and we believe that the kind of help they need is much different than small businesses, and we also believe that these startups will most probably be Tech related startups.

Thanks MyGreenSofa for your question today, and I hope this post made things more clearer on why StartupQ8 is more focused in scalable Tech startups.


StartupQ8 Event Agenda

Are you ready for the next event on Monday the 21st of Jan. Well, we are and the full agenda is here, you can find it below:

If you can’t view the slides, please click here

Please share it with everyone you think will be interested in the event. Please don’t forget to register before you come.

Funding Blocks

With more ideas brewing in college labs and more private/public incubators being set up, many of the common venture funding terms are not captured when investors and entrepreneurs transact in Kuwait.  In a country where approximately $750mn of government funding is allocated to start-up related projects, the bylaws of a company is the only legal binding document that highlights the relationship between investors and the entrepreneurs, and is very standardized with no room for any preferred treatments.  As a result, the transaction process for early stage funding in Kuwait is also very primitive relative to the rest of the region and the international scene; this is the main reason why modern local entrepreneurs and investors prefer transacting outside of Kuwait.

The following are a few thoughts that may be useful to take into consideration for future funding rounds.


Term Sheets

Typically in early stage funding, a term-sheet is an agreement that is entered between financiers and entrepreneurs which outlines the key financial and non-financial terms of a proposed investment.  In developed venture communities, financiers and entrepreneurs have established a more common template for funding rounds.  With the exception of exclusivity and confidentiality, provisions of a term sheet are usually not legally binding however should highlight certain milestones or conditions that are precedent to investment which both parties agree to meet.  Despite provisioning not being legally binding, terms may be rectified based on new findings that have direct impact on the transaction and is typically used in the negotiation rounds before reaching a final agreement.  Once due-diligence is performed (legal, commercial, technical, or financial depending on the level company’s maturity level), the revised terms are usually captured in a shares purchase agreement (SPA) and shareholders agreement (SHA), with the amended articles of association (AoA) reflecting the new legal changes.



The shares purchase agreement contains details of the funding round including the number shares subscribed, share class, and payment terms with representations and warranties about the condition of the Company.  These representations and warranties are qualified by a disclosure letter that specifically highlights all necessary factual information prior to the completion of the transaction.  The second agreement is called “shareholders’ agreement” and will usually contain investor protection rights, including consent rights, control measures, governing policies, board representation and non-compete restrictions.  The “articles of association” contract would include the company activities and engagement rights, the rights attached to the various share classes, the procedures for shares’ issuance and transfer, annual shareholders and board meetings’ procedures.  Commonly highlighted terms in early stage funding term sheet include:

Share classes, valuation and milestones attached, dividend rights, liquidation preference, shares redemption, conversion rights, automatic conversion of shares/series, anti-dilution, founders’ shares, pre-emptive rights on new shares issuance, first right of refusal, tag-along, drag-along, representations and warranties, voting rights, consent rights, board/governance, information rights, exit, registration, management non-compete agreements, intellectual property assignment, employee stock option plan, transaction/monitoring fees, exclusivity, enforceability and conditions precedent. 

Depending on the nature of the transaction and market conditions, term sheets are tailored to meet the specific needs of the transaction as appropriate.  They are also very dependent on the maturity of the overall venture ecosystem and  are fine-tuned to match the transaction needs in accordance with the domestic legal framework.


Lead Investor

 A funding round is usually led and managed by one venture capital firm or angel network that would put together a syndicate either before or after the term sheet is agreed on. The syndicate will usually comprise some or all of the existing investors and new strategic ones that demonstrate arms length value add capital. Once agreed by both parties (new financiers and existing shareholders inclusive of management), the term sheet is used by lawyers as a basis for drafting the investment documents; the more detailed the term sheet, the fewer issues you will have in the final stages of the drafting process.  The process can be complex, therefore working with lawyers familiar with venture capital transactions is highly recommended to reduce the margin of error/ambiguity, the time frame and associated costs.


Despite the complexity of how the transaction process may seem, the actual process and its time horizon is quite simple and short.  In early stage funding, the transaction process would typically take no more than 60 days depending on the level of the company’s maturity and the complexity of the product/services.  More importantly, early stage funding is a very intimate process that is centred around the working culture and the execution capability of the management team; a smart and hard working team is the main factor for a successful funding round.

Wishing you all a Happy New Year and hope to see you in the next StartupQ8 event (21/1/2013) !

Abdulaziz B. Al Loughani



StartupQ8 4th Event on 21st of January

The 4th StartupQ8 event is coming and it’s only 9 days away. In this event we are going to try a new structure. Instead of  3 sessions we will have 2 only, thus to allow more time for open discussions and networking.


Date: 21st of January 2013

Time: 7:00 to 9:00

Venue: as usual Global Investment House

Registration: Click here to register (it’s free, we just need you to register to know the number of people attending)

Below is the full schedule:

– 7:00 : The opening

– 7:05 – 7:45 : Technology and your Startup – The secrets about technology and IT that every founder must know about by Burhan Khalid (Development Manager at Ahli United Bank)

– 7:50 – 8:30 : Interview with the famous Kout bo 6 team, Ahmad Al-Ibrahim and Dr.Mohammad AlMarzouq.

– 8:30 – 9:00 : Networking

We will try to put the full agenda as soon as possible. Please don’t forget to register.

Designers, Startups and the Future by Hamad Mufleh

Writing as a designer wasn’t something I imagined myself to be doing when, just four years ago, I had signed up for an analyst position at an investment firm. By the time this article finds its way to your hands, my boss would’ve likely received it along with my resignation letter. I’m moving from a great company to a great cause that I hope to sell to you in the next six minutes.

I was recently invited to a tech meet-up where I met with Mohammed Al-Hajeri, a software engineer. We talked about an application he’s been building to help home-run businesses organize customer orders and delivery. His inspiration was his sister’s business which started sailing smoothly after he set her up with the app. The story is all rosy, until he began to complain about how it was a hard sell to other home businesses whom didn’t see as much value in it. For a technology optimist like myself, this was difficult to accept.

Something isn’t Right 

The Bloomberg news service ran an interesting story about a prediction made in 1965 by a U.S. Senate subcommittee that Americans would be enjoying 20-hour work weeks by the year 2000, thanks to the computer revolution. But that obviously didn’t happen. Although there is evidence that the revolution is in fact arriving on schedule (see Moore’s law, 1965), it is our adoption that hasn’t taken place at the rate that we had hoped for.

We now have more computing power in our pocket than NASA had when they sent astronauts to the moon. But what good is it when applications still struggle to find their place in our businesses, schools, hospitals, and government?

In contrast to how much power we carry around with us, we still find many parts of our world reminiscent of the past, perhaps confirming William Gibson’s belief that “the future is already here; it is just unevenly distributed.”

Two Berkeley economists, Bronwyn Hall and Beethika Khan, seem to have summed up what’s happening elegantly:

“Unlike the invention of a new technology, which happens as a single event or jump, the diffusion of that technology usually appears as a continuous and rather slow process. Yet it is diffusion rather than invention that ultimately determines the pace of economic growth and the rate of change of productivity.”

The Divide Between Engineers and People

It is not hard to trace why we’re slow to adopt technology when you listen to an insider like Al-Hajeri talk about how software engineers often delve deep into the technical possibilities, paying very little attention to the user experience.

The outcome of the engineer-dominant model has been a recurring theme of technology businesses building applications that often go nowhere. Organizations under this model are promised efficiency and better results and so managers would get on board. But stubborn employees, being the end-users, would decide that it’s a chore. Initially we thought hey, maybe the staff weren’t trained enough. Or was it the user manuals that weren’t thick enough?

But then something incredible happened. We saw babies who haven’t learned to speak yet capable of using humanity’s most advanced piece of technology, the iPad.

So it seems that the bulk of failing applications tend to reduce one type of friction while creating another type of friction. And while engineers are clearly needed to eliminate the former type, it is the designer who is best equipped to prevent the latter.

Technology must be intricately weaved into our lives and workplaces and whoever is building it better know a thing or two about our habits and nature.

What Happens When Designers Bridge the Gap

Apple’s story is one evidence of the potential behind the designer-driven model. When Steve Jobs resigned shortly before his death, he left the power to call all the shots on products with Jonathan Ive, Apple’s chief designer. This stands in clear contrast to the way traditional tech companies work.

Not convinced? Here’s another story about a venture capitalist, Enrique Allen, who saw the billions of value created by tech startups with designer co-founders. His Designer Fund’s website makes a reference to successes like YouTube, Pinterest, Tumblr, Instagram, and Twitter’s creator Jack Dorsey who’s profiled as “OCD about design.” Allen initially spent much of his energy mentoring startups about how to bring creative thinking and a respect for user experience to their company culture. But he figured that through his investment fund, which aims to bring designer CEOs to the tech startup scene, he would have better success in incorporating design into a company’s DNA. Allen goes on to say that “what we’re hoping to do is shift the paradigm of what design is. Design encompasses systems now, not just ‘making things look pretty.’”

If we look in other areas where progress is much needed, designers can play a crucial role in introducing technology. A recent survey discovered that most doctors in fact like digital technology, but their adoption levels have lagged their desire to use it. And Pat Wise, VP of Healthcare Systems, believes that “when technology is user-friendly and fits into the workflow of physicians, they clearly are early adopters.”

Make the Future Arrive Somewhere

User Experience (UX) designers are an emerging species with a dose of empathy and curiosity.

Empathy here is the capacity to be sensitive and vicariously experience the feelings and thoughts of the person we’re designing for without him or her explicitly communicating it.

When we’re designing interfaces for instance, empathy becomes the ability to resist the urge to fill the white space on the screen with more stuff. Cognitive science tells us that this is both stupid and disastrous.

Another common failure is when our assumptions in the beginning of a project turn out to be wrong. And let me tell you that they do most of the time. Yet we still overestimate our intelligence because it is easier than to dedicate weeks for research and fact-finding interviews. Genuine curiosity then becomes our only option to form real understanding.

Your goal could be to save a human soul by reducing tedious work to few clicks, or if you’re brave enough you’d dip in unchartered territory in health care, education or government.

Whatever it is that you care about, when you’re re-imagining its workflow, you have to understand the relevant constraints of the real world and tip-toe around the land mines to eventually arrive at an elegant solution that won’t break.

Join the movement if you’ve got the empathy and curiosity. If not, hire someone who does and listen to her. You’ll make the future arrive somewhere.


About the author:

Hamad is trained as an analyst in the investment sector, Hamad likes to explore problems and spot patterns. He’s also a change advocate who believes in the potential influence of design and the exponential reach of technology. He shifted careers to become a user experience designer for web and mobile applications. When he’s not working or learning more about his craft, he’s often busy reshaping his worldview, one controversial issue at a time. You can follow him in twitter @hamadmj and in tumblr @hamadmj.

StartupQ8 3rd Event – Summary

As usual, the summary of StartupQ8 is here. As you might know by now, the full post is exclusively posted in Below is part of the post:



With Dr. Naif Al-Mutawa

With Dr. Naif Al-Mutawa

“As one of our attendees said, “It can’t get any better.” The 3rd StartupQ8 event went well thanks to our speakers Abdulaziz Al-Loughani, Hoi Wan and Dr. Naif AlMutawa and the more than 70 people who showed up; it was amazing to meet so many young talents and passionate entrepreneurs in Kuwait.

As usual, the event was split into three sessions with three speakers:

1. Early Stage Funding with Abdulaziz AlLoughani

Abdulaziz took stage and started explaining the cycle of funding that startups go through. We further discussed his experience with his previous startup (, one of the most successful startup in Kuwait). The discussion that followed his talk was also interesting and was focused on the lack of smart money in Kuwait.

Below is the full video interview, in addition to my short introduction about StartupQ8 (the sound is bit low, so plug your headphones and increase the volume to the maximum level”……….Click here to continue reading 

StartupQ8 Dec. 2012 (2) StartupQ8 Dec. 2012 (8) StartupQ8 Dec. 2012 (3) StartupQ8 Dec. 2012 (10)

OpenCoffee Club Meetup: January 7th, 2013.

Here are the details for the next OpenCoffee Club meetup:

  • OpenCoffee Club – Kuwait
  • For: Entrepreneurs, startup enthusiasts, developers, programmers, all welcome.
  • Topic: Startup Sales and Marketing – Tools to measure and increase sales for your startup.
  • When/where: Monday January 7 at 7:30 PM – 8:30 PM @ Java Detour in Sour Tower.
  • Organizer: Faisal AlMahmeed is handling the organization and logistics. You can contact him here.

Let us know if you have any questions.

Remember the Good Times, Marketing through Nostalgia

In today’s world we as consumers are bombarded with messages all day every day, from TV, to radio, to the internet. On top of all of the messages that companies are throwing at us, there are also the messages we receive from our peers, these we interact with through social media; we retweet this or “like” that, if we really care we may even leave a comment.  Our attention is so scattered that it makes it difficult for a small startup company to engage us; it needs to slip and slide its way through all the other distractions that are fighting for our attention. That is why as a start up, marketing plays a vital role in your success. Let us first define what marketing is since so many still believe that marketing is just about advertising, the latest definition of marketing as per the American Marketing Association is

“the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

That is basically a fancy way of saying that marketing is an integral part of everything you do in your business, from how you design your product to how you communicate with your customers. Marketing is not only about advertising; Having said that, today I wanted to discuss a concept called Nostalgia marketing, just because I find it very interesting and very relevant to the times.


What is Nostalgia Marketing?

Nostalgia marketing is marketing that is aimed at evoking a feeling of nostalgia in your customers. Nostalgia is

“a sentimental yearning for the happiness of a former place or time.”

And it can be triggered by all the senses. Whether it is a smell that reminds you of the cookies your mom used to bake, a song you danced to in high school, the taste of the ice cream you used to eat as a child, or a clip of a movie you used to watch in college. Even touch can evoke nostalgia (it is one of the reasons grownups still enjoy popping bubble wrap). Through various studies scientists have found that there are two types of memories that are often associated with nostalgia: social interactions such as family gatherings or playing catch at school and momentous life events such as graduations and weddings. These are the memories our minds are drawn to when the feeling of nostalgia is evoked.


Why is it important?

The reason that nostalgia is now being considered as an important emotion by marketers is because it makes us happy. In times or recession or instability nostalgia is even more effective, this is because when people are feeling down about their situation now nothing makes them feel better than remembering the happier times in the past, our minds as human beings are hard wired to work that way. As Martin Lindstrom mentioned in his book Buy-ology ”in the face of insecurity or uncertainty about the future, we want nothing more than to revert to a more stable time” It is much more comforting to think of times when we had less responsibility and things were simpler rather than pondering the issues we are facing today. That is why in times of recession we notice more older retro products being brought back (the Fiat 500 for example), more songs tend to incorporate tunes or lyrics from older songs, company advertisements will focus on the past to the extent that some companies will even bring back advertisements that they used decades ago. All of this is supposed to target consumers who are now burdened by long working hours, paying bills, or taking care of children and remind them of the days when they didn’t have to worry about such things. By framing their products or services in this context, companies link themselves with happier times in the minds of consumers, making a sale that much easier.

The old and new Fiat 500

The old and new Fiat 500

What to consider?

When using nostalgia marketing you need to know who your target market is because 20 year olds are going to be nostalgic about very different things that 40 year olds. Depending on what senses you are targeting and whether you are using nostalgia marketing in your advertising, in your product design or maybe even in your supply chain the methods are different. Remember it does not have to be something obvious such as a TV show, music or food; it can be a lot more subtle such as a font or a color. You also want to make sure that what you are doing is old enough to be retro and bring about nostalgia, if it isn’t old enough it will not trigger those desired emotions and people may just see you as outdated.


Keep in mind it is possible for nostalgia to backfire if done incorrectly. If you take something that people cherish and have fond memories of and change it in a way people do not like, it can cause them to turn on you because you tainted something that was special to them. An example that shows how people can have emotional connections with products is KDD Ice Cream. When they changed their old ice cream names and packaging and reintroduced them as Blitz the backlash was huge. Social media blew up with complaints about how much everyone wanted their old ice cream names and packaging back. Just like nostalgia marketing can be very effective in times of uncertainty; it is also a very bad idea to change a product or service that people are attached to and comfortable with.

The New Blitz Ice Cream Ad

The New Blitz Ice Cream Ad


Examples of Nostalgia Marketing:

Some examples of nostalgia marketing campaigns that are done well are:

“Pepsi Throwback Atari Arcade” this was an online campaign where people would play classic Atari games online for the chance to win prizes such as an Atari system. Now in this ad we see the classic Pepsi can, we see the Atari logo and the campaign is about making people play classic games that they used to play when they were kids.

Pepsi Throwback Atari Arcade Campaign

Pepsi Throwback Atari Arcade Campaign

The below Facebook print ad is retro in every way from the images to the fonts and colors used. This ad was not only about nostalgia but about contrast as well, since the written message is about modern communication.

Facebook Ad

Facebook Print Ad


Some video commercials that use nostalgia are McDonald’s “Feed your Inner Child” marketing campaign which is all about escaping the dull reality of now and connecting with your inner child. Then there is LinkedIn which uses nostalgia marketing in a more subtle way creating an advertisement in the same style as the old training videos of the 70’s.

The above are examples of nostalgia used in marketing, but remember that nostalgia is all about the experiences of your consumers, things that may make a 30 year old in the US nostalgic may have no effect whatsoever in Kuwait because they are not relevant to the experiences of people here.

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